Social Isolation Increases the Risk of Heart Attacks, Strokes, & Death from All Causes
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Those who are socially isolated are over 40% more likely to have a cardiovascular event, such as a heart attack or stroke, than those who were socially integrated, new research has shown.
The German study, due to presented tomorrow at the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) Virtual Congress, found that those who are socially isolated are almost 50% more likely to die from any cause.
Performed within the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (HNR) and led by Dr. Janine Gronewold and Prof Dirk M. Hermann from the University Hospital in Essen, the research analysed data from 4,316 individuals who were recruited between 2000 and 2003.
The participants entered the study with no known cardiovascular disease and they were followed for an average of 13 years. At the start of the study, information was collected on different types of social support, with social integration assessed based on marital status and cohabitation, contact with close friends and family, and membership of political, religious, community, sports, or professional organizations.
"We have known for some time that feeling lonely or lacking contact with close friends and family can have an impact on your physical health," commented Dr. Gronewold. "What this study tells us is that having strong social relationships is of high importance for your heart health similar to role of classical protective factors as having healthy blood pressure, acceptable cholesterol levels, and a normal weight."
Professor Jöckel, one of the PI's of the HNR adds: "This observation is of particular interest in the present discussion on the COVID-19 pandemic, where social contacts are or have been relevantly restricted in most societies."
During the follow-up, 339 cardiovascular events occurred, and there were 530 deaths among the study participants. After adjusting for other factors that might have contributed to these events and deaths, a lack of social integration was found to increase the future risk of cardiovascular events by 44% and to increase the risk of death from all causes by 47%. A lack of financial support was associated with a 30% increased risk of cardiovascular events.
"This is obviously a worrying finding, particularly during these times of prolonged social distancing," concluded Dr. Gronewold.